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Fumigation is a treatment measure, which is intended to eliminate 100 percent of pests infesting grains and other commodities as well with toxic chemicals or fumigants. The fumigants are generally preferred because they form lethal concentration within enclosures and inside commodities while other insecticides penetrate with difficulty or not at all. A pesticide that is effective as a fumigant, it must be volatile enough to produce a toxic concentration in a close space in a short period of time. So, fumigation is a method of insect control that can effectively eliminate pests from commodities, it follows established practices and procedure. A fumigation that is conducted improperly will not kill the pests. Such fumigations are meaningless from storage point of view and they may be hazardous.

PHOSPHENE  Fumigation :-
AlP + 3H2O = PH3↑ + Al(OH)3
NH2 -COO-NH4 (Catalyst) = CO2↑ + 2NH3↑ (Garlic Smell)
Prepared tablets and pellets release phosphene gas when they come in contact with  humid air(free water). Phosphene gas is toxic to insects. When insects are exposed to this type of an atmosphere for sufficient time, all stages of development (eggs, larvae, pupae and adults) are killed. Phosphene does not change or impair the commodity in any way, and does not leave residues which could be hazardous to the consumer. However, it is still extremely toxic to humans as a gas.

The chemical compound Bromo-methane commonly known as Methyl Bromide, is an organic halogen compound with formula CH3BR. It is a colorless, nonflammable gas with no distinctive smell. Bromomethane used a fumigant, for Plant-Quarantine purpose for Phytosanitary requirement, to kill a variety of storage pests including rats and insects.(Bromomethane is the preffered fumigant for ISPM-15, regulations when exporting wooden packaging to certain countries)

During storage of food grain , losses takes place due to various Biotic and A-biotic factors , which affect the keeping quality of food-grains .They not only cause quantitative losses but are responsible to cause qualitative losses also there by reducing the nutritive and market value of stored grain. Nearly one thousand species of insects have been found associated with stored products in various part of world. The majority of insect-pests belong to the order Coleoptera and Lepidoptera which account for about 60% and 8-9% respectively, of the total number of species of stored products insect pests.

Based on their feeding behavior , the stored insects can be grouped in two categories -
1. External Feeder - whose all the four life stages are completed outside the grain. Its Infestation is visible on visual examination.
2. Internal Feeder – whose immature stages are completed inside the grain. Its infestation is invisible on visual examination and called Hidden or Latent Infestation.

Also stored insects are divided in two groups :
Major/Primary pests : Those insect species which are capable to attack sound kernel of most cereal grains are generally known as Primary insect pest of stored grain.

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